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IELTS Speaking : band 7-9 phrases

(아이엘츠 보카 정리)




맘잉 IELTS 보카 - 선거 관련 어휘.pdf



Politics is awash with words and phrases that are beloved of commentators and politicians alike. Here...
BBC News / 2015-05-07


  1. Absentee ballot

    A vote cast by someone who cannot reach a polling station. Can be postal or by proxy (see below).

  2. Agent
    선거운동 출납 책임자

    A person who represents candidates in their dealings with the electoral authorities and runs their campaigns.

  3. Ballot

    Another term for vote.

  4. Ballot box

    Sealed box with a slit in the lid, into which voters place their ballot papers.

  5. Ballot paper

    Paper containing a list of all candidates standing in a constituency. Voters mark their choice with a cross.

  6. Battlebus

    A vehicle used by a party to transport its leader or other senior figures around the country to rallies or to meet the people.

  7. Budget

    The government's tax and spending plans, outlined once a year by the chancellor of the exchequer.

  8. By-election

    An election held between general elections, usually because the sitting MP has died or resigned.

  9. Cabinet

    The group of senior ministers at the head of the government.

  10. Candidate

    Someone putting themselves up for election. Once Parliament has been dissolved, there are no MPs, only candidates.

  11. Canvassing
    유세를 하다

    During a campaign, active supporters of a party ask voters who they will vote for and try to drum up support for their own candidates.

  12. Coalition
    연립 정부, 연정

    When two or more parties govern together, when neither has an overall majority. After the 2010 election, the Conservatives and Lib Dems formed a coalition, which lasted for five years.

  13. Confidence and supply
    신임과 공급

    A smaller party supports a larger party in key Commons votes - specifically confidence votes and finance/supply bills - to keep it in power.

  14. Constituency

    The geographical unit which elects a single MP. There are 650 in the UK.

  15. Deposit

    A sum of £500 paid by candidates or their parties to be allowed to stand. It is returned if the candidate wins 5% or more of the votes cast.

  16. Devolution
    권력 이양

    The delegation of powers to other parliamentary bodies within the UK, specifically the Scottish Parliament and Welsh and Northern Ireland Assemblies.

  17. Dissolution of Parliament
    의회 해산

    The act of ending a Parliament.

  18. English votes for English laws
    영국법을 위한 영국 투표

    The argument that only MPs representing English constituencies should decide on laws which only effect England - normally in areas which are devolved to administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, such as health, education and transport.

  19. Election expenses
    선거 비용

    Candidates are only allowed to spend a limited amount of money on their individual campaign. Accounts must be submitted after the poll proving they did not exceed this limit.

  20. Electoral register
    선거인 명부

    A list of all those in a constituency entitled to vote. Also known as electoral roll.

  21. Exit poll
    출구 조사

    A poll carried out by researchers asking people how they have voted just after they have left the polling station on election day.

  22. First past the post
    최다 득표자를 당선시키는

    Term used to describe the UK's parliamentary election system. It means a candidate only needs to win the most votes in their constituency to win the seat.

  23. Franchise

    The right to vote. Now available to those over 18 and on the electoral register.

  24. General election

    Election at which all seats in the House of Commons are contested.

  25. Hung parliament
    절대 다수당이 없는 의회

    If after an election no party has an overall majority, then parliament is said to be "hung". The main parties will then try to form a coalition with one or more of the minor parties. Opinion polls have suggested that a hung parliament is a strong possibility after the 2015 general election.

  26. Majority government

    When one party wins more than half of the seats in the Commons, they can rule alone in a majority government

  27. Manifesto

    A public declaration of a party's ideas and policies, usually printed during the campaign. Once in power, a government is often judged by how many of its manifesto promises it manages to deliver.

  28. Marginal constituencies
    접전 선거구

    Seats where the gap between the two or more leading parties is relatively small. Often regarded as less than a 10% margin or requiring a swing (see below) of 5% or less, though very dependent on prevailing political conditions.

  29. Minority government

    A government formed by a party which does not have an absolute majority in the House of Commons. Harold Wilson led a Labour minority government between February and October 1974.

  30. MP (Member of Parliament)

    Strictly this includes members of the House of Lords, but in practice means only members of the House of Commons. When an election is called Parliament is dissolved and there are no more MPs until it assembles again.

  31. Nomination papers

    A candidate must be nominated on these documents by 10 voters living in the constituency.

  32. Number 10
    영국 정부 (영국 총리 관저가 있는 곳으로 영국 총리와 정부를 가리킴)

    The official residence in Downing Street of the British prime minister since the 18th Century. Number 10 and Downing Street both serve as terms to describe the prime minister and his or her inner circle, as in "Number 10 has said that".

  33. Opinion poll

    A survey asking people's opinion on one or more issues. In an election campaign, the key question is usually about which party people will vote for.

  34. Opposition

    The largest party not in government is known as the official opposition. It receives extra parliamentary funding in recognition of its status.

  35. Party Election Broadcast (PEB)
    정당 선거방송

    Broadcasts made by the parties and transmitted on TV or radio. By agreement with the broadcasters, each party is allowed a certain number according to its election strength and number of candidates fielded.

  36. Personation

    The offence of impersonating someone else in order to use their vote.

  37. Poll

    Another term for vote or election.

  38. Polling clerk
    투표소 직원

    The person in the polling station who checks the electoral register to verify that the voter is eligible to cast their vote and at that particular polling station.

  39. Polling day

    Election day.

  40. Polling station

    Place where people go to cast their votes.

  41. Postal vote
    우편 투표

    People unable to get to a polling station are allowed to vote by post if they apply in advance.

  42. Proportional representation (PR)

    Systems of voting which aim to give parties the representation in a parliament justified by their level of support among the electorate. PR is not used in Westminster elections.

  43. Prorogation

    The act of ending a session of Parliament. Performed when an election is called.

  44. Presiding officer

    The person responsible for ensuring the conduct of the ballot in polling stations. They have to ensure that ballot boxes are kept secure and are responsible for transferring them safely to the count.

  45. Proxy vote

    People unable to get to a polling station are allowed to appoint someone to vote on their behalf if they apply in advance. They are also allowed a postal vote.

  46. Psephology

    The study of voting and voting patterns.

  47. Recount

    If a result is close, any candidate may ask for a recount. The process can be repeated several times if necessary until the candidates are satisfied. The returning officer has the final say on whether a recount takes place.

  48. Referendum

    A binding vote of the whole country on a single issue.

  49. Returning officer

    The official in charge of elections in each of the constituencies.

  50. Safe seat

    A constituency in which the holding party has a big lead to defend. Often regarded as being a margin of 15-20% or more.

  51. Speaker

    An MP elected by other members of the Commons to chair debates and deal with the running of the Commons. By tradition, an MP who is Speaker is not opposed by any of the main parties at elections.

  52. Spoiled ballots

    Ballot papers which have been filled in incorrectly. The returning officer has the final say over whether any paper not marked with a single cross is valid.

  53. Tactical voting
    전략적 투표(특정 후보나 정당을 지지해서가 아니라 다른 사람이 선출되는 것을 방지하기 위해 그 후보나 정당을 찍는 것)

    This is when people vote not for the party they really support, but for another party in order to keep out a more disliked rival.

  54. Target seats


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